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This is in sharp contrast to the earlier PCI connection, which is a bus-based system where all the devices share the same bidirectional, bit or bit parallel bus.
PCI Express is a layered protocol , consisting of a transaction layer , a data link layer , and a physical layer. The Physical Layer is subdivided into logical and electrical sublayers.
The Physical logical-sublayer contains a physical coding sublayer PCS. The terms are borrowed from the IEEE networking protocol model.
At the electrical level, each lane consists of two unidirectional differential pairs operating at 2.
Transmit and receive are separate differential pairs, for a total of four data wires per lane. A connection between any two PCIe devices is known as a link , and is built up from a collection of one or more lanes.
Devices may optionally support wider links composed of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 32 lanes. This allows for very good compatibility in two ways:.
In both cases, PCIe negotiates the highest mutually supported number of lanes. Even though the two would be signal-compatible, it is not usually possible to place a physically larger PCIe card e.
The width of a PCIe connector is 8. The fixed section of the connector is PCIe sends all control messages, including interrupts, over the same links used for data.
The serial protocol can never be blocked, so latency is still comparable to conventional PCI, which has dedicated interrupt lines. Data transmitted on multiple-lane links is interleaved, meaning that each successive byte is sent down successive lanes.
The PCIe specification refers to this interleaving as data striping. While requiring significant hardware complexity to synchronize or deskew the incoming striped data, striping can significantly reduce the latency of the n th byte on a link.
As with other high data rate serial transmission protocols, the clock is embedded in the signal. At the physical level, PCI Express 2.
This coding was used to prevent the receiver from losing track of where the bit edges are. To improve the available bandwidth, PCI Express version 3.
It also reduces electromagnetic interference EMI by preventing repeating data patterns in the transmitted data stream.
On the transmit side, the data link layer generates an incrementing sequence number for each outgoing TLP. It serves as a unique identification tag for each transmitted TLP, and is inserted into the header of the outgoing TLP.
The receiver sends a negative acknowledgement message NAK with the sequence-number of the invalid TLP, requesting re-transmission of all TLPs forward of that sequence-number.
The link receiver increments the sequence-number which tracks the last received good TLP , and forwards the valid TLP to the receiver's transaction layer.
Barring a persistent malfunction of the device or transmission medium, the link-layer presents a reliable connection to the transaction layer, since the transmission protocol ensures delivery of TLPs over an unreliable medium.
In addition to sending and receiving TLPs generated by the transaction layer, the data-link layer also generates and consumes DLLPs, data link layer packets.
In practice, the number of in-flight, unacknowledged TLPs on the link is limited by two factors: PCI Express implements split transactions transactions with request and response separated by time , allowing the link to carry other traffic while the target device gathers data for the response.
PCI Express uses credit-based flow control. In this scheme, a device advertises an initial amount of credit for each received buffer in its transaction layer.
The device at the opposite end of the link, when sending transactions to this device, counts the number of credits each TLP consumes from its account.
The sending device may only transmit a TLP when doing so does not make its consumed credit count exceed its credit limit. When the receiving device finishes processing the TLP from its buffer, it signals a return of credits to the sending device, which increases the credit limit by the restored amount.
The credit counters are modular counters, and the comparison of consumed credits to credit limit requires modular arithmetic. The advantage of this scheme compared to other methods such as wait states or handshake-based transfer protocols is that the latency of credit return does not affect performance, provided that the credit limit is not encountered.
This assumption is generally met if each device is designed with adequate buffer sizes. This figure is a calculation from the physical signaling rate 2.
While this is correct in terms of data bytes, more meaningful calculations are based on the usable data payload rate, which depends on the profile of the traffic, which is a function of the high-level software application and intermediate protocol levels.
Like other high data rate serial interconnect systems, PCIe has a protocol and processing overhead due to the additional transfer robustness CRC and acknowledgements.
But in more typical applications such as a USB or Ethernet controller , the traffic profile is characterized as short data packets with frequent enforced acknowledgements.
Being a protocol for devices connected to the same printed circuit board , it does not require the same tolerance for transmission errors as a protocol for communication over longer distances, and thus, this loss of efficiency is not particular to PCIe.
PCI Express operates in consumer, server, and industrial applications, as a motherboard-level interconnect to link motherboard-mounted peripherals , a passive backplane interconnect and as an expansion card interface for add-in boards.
In virtually all modern as of [update] PCs, from consumer laptops and desktops to enterprise data servers, the PCIe bus serves as the primary motherboard-level interconnect, connecting the host system-processor with both integrated-peripherals surface-mounted ICs and add-on peripherals expansion cards.
Nvidia uses the high-bandwidth data transfer of PCIe for its Scalable Link Interface SLI technology, which allows multiple graphics cards of the same chipset and model number to run in tandem, allowing increased performance.
Note that there are special power cables called PCI-e power cables which are required for high-end graphics cards . Theoretically, external PCIe could give a notebook the graphics power of a desktop, by connecting a notebook with any PCIe desktop video card enclosed in its own external housing, with a power supply and cooling ; possible with an ExpressCard interface or a Thunderbolt interface.
In external card hubs were introduced that can connect to a laptop or desktop through a PCI ExpressCard slot. These hubs can accept full-sized graphics cards.
Intel Thunderbolt interface has given opportunity to new and faster products to connect with a PCIe card externally. PCI Express protocol can be used as data interface to flash memory devices, such as memory cards and solid-state drives SSDs.
Certain data-center applications such as large computer clusters require the use of fiber-optic interconnects due to the distance limitations inherent in copper cabling.
Typically, a network-oriented standard such as Ethernet or Fibre Channel suffices for these applications, but in some cases the overhead introduced by routable protocols is undesirable and a lower-level interconnect, such as InfiniBand , RapidIO , or NUMAlink is needed.
Local-bus standards such as PCIe and HyperTransport can in principle be used for this purpose,  but as of [update] solutions are only available from niche vendors such as Dolphin ICS.
The differences are based on the trade-offs between flexibility and extensibility vs latency and overhead. The additional overhead reduces the effective bandwidth of the interface and complicates bus discovery and initialization software.
Also making the system hot-pluggable requires that software track network topology changes. InfiniBand is such a technology.
Another example is making the packets shorter to decrease latency as is required if a bus must operate as a memory interface. Smaller packets mean packet headers consume a higher percentage of the packet, thus decreasing the effective bandwidth.
PCI Express falls somewhere in the middle, targeted by design as a system interconnect local bus rather than a device interconnect or routed network protocol.
Additionally, its design goal of software transparency constrains the protocol and raises its latency somewhat.
Delays in PCIe 4. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with PCI-X. This section does not cite any sources.
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